Open Access Research

A modified double injection model of cisterna magna for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

Furat Raslan14*, Christiane Albert-Weißenberger2, Thomas Westermaier1, Saker Saker3, Christoph Kleinschnitz2 and Jin-Yul Lee1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

2 Department of Neurology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany

3 Division of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

4 Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Josef-Schneider-Str. 11, Würzburg, D-97080, Germany

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Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012, 4:23  doi:10.1186/2040-7378-4-23

Published: 29 November 2012

Abstract

Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious medical complication, characterized by constriction of cerebral arteries leading to varying degrees of cerebral ischemia. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have been performed in the last decades; however, the pathophysiologic mechanism of cerebral vasospasm after SAH still remains unclear. Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury leading to high mortality. Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery.

Keywords:
Cerebral vasospasm; Cisterna magna; Double hemorrhage model; Rat; Subarachnoid hemorrhage