Scheme depicting the possible interplay between vascular mediators and changes in microcirculation during autoimmune inflammation of the CNS. Altered microcirculation may lead to iron deposition and increased leukocyte infiltration. In turn, pleiotropic factors such as vascular mediators released by immune cells and the activated endothelium can cause neovascularization and lead to the recruitment of further effector cells. This mechanism may be part of a feed-forward loop that perpetuates the inflammatory process in MS.
Waschbisch et al. Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:7 doi:10.1186/2040-7378-3-7